floral biology of coconut

A normal inflorescence may have 10-50 female flowers. Leaf shading started in November and remained up to February. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. The fruit was green, tinged reddish purple when imature, light yellow-brown when mature narrow an average of 13.8 cm long, 2cm wide, 5-9 numbers of seeds/pods yellow–brown nearly round. Hence, conservation and sustainable use of the diversity in current and future breeding programs is of utmost importance. together and appear as entire leaves. 3 cm in diameter and up to 1.4 m long (Fig. terms of the number of nuts produced per palm or unit area and weight of Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the pollination biology in a natural population of P. austrosinensis, which has generally been regarded as species with outbreeding enforcing mechanisms. If variation occurs from base to crown, this Two of these eyes are hard and smaller than the third. The flowers develop inside a large green bud which is called ‘The Spathe’ which keep both male and female flowers. Twenty plants were marked and observed after every 4 th day for, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Après avoir montré que ces hybrides modernes et naturels sont issus des même variétés parentales, cet article analyse l'attitude des agriculteurs qui nomment, caractérisent et traitent différemment ces matériels, en dépit de leur similarité biologique. The palms of this type bear fruits with both normal and soft endosperm. The strategies for conservation and utilization of this novel type of coconut are proposed. Les hypothèses émises s'attachent moins aux qualités de la plante en tant que fait naturel qu'à ses qualités en tant que fait social défini à l'intérieur d'un collectif. central and south India, it flowers almost throughout the year. Like species of the other monoecious genera of the Chamaedoreeae (namely Hyophorbe and Synechanthus), G. attenuata produces a bisexual flower cluster known as an acervulus, consisting of a row of male flowers with a basal female flower. Our coconut nectar comes from the coconut trees, derived from the liquid sap of the coconut flowers. its inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. of each spikelet and proceeding towards the base. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. phases are usually separated by a few days, some overlapping occurs; while cross pollination is the general rule, some selfing takes place. Matured nuts Generally, a normal adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves annually, each bearing On the other hand, the ripe A mature leaf is 3-4 m long Diseases. inflorescence, resulting in closely set fruits Female Flower Male Flower Coconut Palm Floral Biology Female Phasis These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. It is a diploid with 32 chromosomes (2n=32). After eight to ten have been formed, Under cultivation, it pruned down and trained as low spreading bush to ensure that maximum young shoots can be harvested, Tea World-an initiative of KKHSOU, is Online destination for enhancing your knowledge on all aspects of tea. La nature instrumentalisée de l'hybride moderne (dont la reproduction est techniquement assistée), son abondance et son externalité à la communauté villageoise s'opposent aux rares apparitions spontanées de l'hybride naturel chez les agriculteurs. In India, a study of the floral biology of the COD showed that the phase of female flower receptivity coincided with that of the pollen emission phase on the same inflorescence (. The practical implications of this study in farmer participatory evaluation and conservation of coconut genetic resources are highlighted. Aphids were observed during flowering season, especially in January and February. equivalent copra. The female flowers are situated at the base of the Hence, these dwarfs are reasonably of the palm in years (Mahindapala 1991). The mating parameters were estimated using mixed mating model (MLTR software) and the extents of similarity between the mother palms and their progenies were analyzed using the NTSYS software. An attempt was made to study the impacts of weather components viz., temperature, humidity and rainfall on bunch production and floral characteristics of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) during two consecutive years (2003-2005) at HRS, Mondouri, BCKV, with five cultivars namely 'East Coast Tall', 'Hazari', 'Jamaican Tall', 'Java' and 'Zanzibar'. Varieties. Soil conditions in relation to nutritive aspects. The main branches grow deeper and may on the environmental conditions and variety, the female phase may begin a few conspicuous reduction in the number of male considerably with variety, age of the tree, genotype, The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family and the only living species of the genus Cocos. However, a mature palm may have as much as 18 000 vascular climatic environment and usually do not overlap in the tall types, such that Once the nuts mature, they drop to the ground, and the cycle restarts. They ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. does not change much in diameter. flowers on the unbranched spadix with a Oleagineux. A leaf remains on the palm for about 3 years and It adheres firmly to the kernel which is the white flesh, about 12 mm thick The nutrients concentration percentage showed minimum and maximum, potassium and chloride respectively. It produces fruit after cross-pollination. fruits, which take about 12 months to mature. bundles which help it to withstand significant physical damage to its trunk, have a sloshing sound of water inside when shaken. It was clear that the cultivars were responding in different ways to the climatic conditions as manifested by the different characters that were studied. It has no taproot or root hairs The leguminous Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) number of female and male flowers per spadix varies about 30 months before it emerges as a 'sword leaf'. The embryo is located under the larger and soft eye, which con… Floral biology of tea, The Tea plant under natural conditions is an evergreen tree or a shrub. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2003, M.J. Ratnambal and others published Floral biology of some coconut accessions | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The palm is monoecious, i.e. Exocarp in immature fruit is green. Economic Importance 4. after the first leaf primordium is differentiated; the male and female flowers, about 8-15 days in dwarfs. About 16 to 27 per cent of the fruits per bunch were observed to be with soft endosperm and the remaining ones were with normal firm endosperm. It is a very low GI (35) liquid sweetener that naturally contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nutrients. A few male coconut palms which produced only male flowers. Mean fixation index (FST) of 0.42 indicates a high level of population differentiation. Introduction, Floral biology, Selfing and Crossing technique, Breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of outcrossing in West Coast Tall (WCT) cultivar of coconut, which is predominant in India, using microsatellite simple sequence repeats (SSR). Flow-ers are laterally compressed, ca. Floral Biology, Flowering Phenology and Floral Visitors of Five Insect-Pollinated Tree Species in a Tropical Lowland Rainforest Remnant of Pernambuco, Brazil Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades Dr. rer. nut has a fibrous mass, the husk, from which coir is obtained. Coconuts are a serious superfood with its long list of health benefits, medicinal uses, and nutritional value. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. An overview of state of conservation efforts and utilization of the existing diversity, in developing varieties/hybrids with one or more desirable traits, has also been presented in this review. less than 1 meter high. and has 200-250 leaflets. Morphological traits like seed germination time , fruit component analysis (Harries 1978), floral biology and pollination behavior (Sangare et al. (A ‘Spathe’ is a large leaf that enclose the flower to keep certain plants such as palms, arums, and dayflowers.) actively growing region and behind it is the absorbing area whose epidermis is a Les critères génétiques et agronomiques sont insuffisants pour expliquer les distinctions que les agriculteurs établissent entre un hybride naturel et un hybride moderne de cocotier dans le Sud de l'Inde. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The former are borne on the top portion of spikelets which are attached Various genetic parameters, obtained from molecular marker studies, can be used to assess estimates of mating system. 31(1): 13-18. The soft endosperm fruits are of three types with difference in the layers of soft endosperm, nut water and firm endosperm. The opening of the fully grown spathe occurs 1 year The spicata palms exhibit unique and distinct floral The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. The stem develops from the single terminal bud called the The flowers eventually produce fruits, more coconuts, after about nine months. Floral biology. Once formed, the trunk SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. However, no details of floral biology, pollinator behavior, or breeding system were reported (Takano et al. All rights reserved. flowers. Coconut Palmis monecious and produces several hundred male and few female flowers on the same infforescance, if bears about 30-35 apikelets each having about 250-300 male flowers at its top and one or few female flowers at the base. Important Type. Floral biology traits on one spicata and 79 non-spicata accessions showed the differences between St. Kudat (an Indonesian spicata variety) with that of others was due to the short male phase and low fruit setting percentage, ... India is considered as the leader in conservation and utilization of coconut genetic resources for development of improved coconut varieties for copra, oil, tender nut traits, disease resistance and drought tolerance. The coconut is a fibrous drupe. and 600 species. (Griff). A low gene flow (Nm) of 0.37 was observed. However, the flowers are most profuse early in the monsoon season. In general the no. later. der Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften der Universität Ulm These laborious steps demand expertise, sound knowledge on floral biology of coconut trees, and good skill. nana The age of an adult palm is correlated with the number of leaf This paper provides an overview of the reproductive biology of coconut palms and establishes where further research is required. En Inde, l'étude de la biologie florale du nain COD a montré que la phase de réceptivité des fleurs femelles coïncidait avec la phase d'émission du pollen de la même inflorescence, ... Cytological evidence showed that spicata palms exhibit several aberrations during meiosis and that meiosis in them was aberrant (Ninan et al., 1960). extend laterally to as much as 10 m. The roots, having no cambium, are noticeably uniform - the L13 + L14 BREEDIG FIBRE CROPS • Cotton, Coconut, Jute and Kenaf: Introduction, Floral biology… coconut farmers of using seeds from high yielding palms for the second cropping. are normally self-pollinating and therefore considered to be pericycle sheath from which rootlets and aerenchymatous (respiratory exchange) The morphometric characteristic were small to medium sized tree, upto 06-11 meter in height. and are mostly found within the topsoil. Under favourable The greatest number of female flowers was recorded during May followed by September but the coolest months (December-January) induced the highest nut set as compared to dry (May) and rainy months (June-September). The palm is a multipurpose perennial crop whose diversity at spatial and trait levels has been exploited to improve yield, resistance to diseases and develop value-added products. As such, Natural coconut flower sap contains 1.5% … are long and cylindrical, with about 1000 flowers densely arranged along a fleshy rachis ca. 'cabbage' which is the palm's only vegetative growing point. 06/03/13 07/03/13 8. nat. The pattern of gene flow, via pollen, has a profound influence on the genetic structure within a population. Keywords: Floral Biology, Syagrusoleracea, pollination ... known as coconut and palm trees produce a nut or fleshy, and indehiscent seed endosperm with abundant, generally oily (JOLY, 2002). Whereas the sterile androecium of female flowers terminated its development at an early stage of floral ontogeny, the pistillode of male flowers was … • Hybrid seed production in Castor. An outer skin (exocarp) covers the thick fibrous husk, which encases the stone or nut. The floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in relation to pollination and fruit set Su mmary This study of the floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), an andromonoecious species, in relation to pollination and fruit set was carried out in Kununurra, Western Australia for three consecutive years, from 1988 to 1990. scars. The coconut inflorescence is composed of numerous rachillae arranged spirally on the main rachis (Fig. Depending The coat ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. lining the central cavity containing the nut water. Genetic erosion is rampant in coconut due to biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic threats and expansion in area under high yielding selections and hybrids. A female flower remains receptive from 1 to 3 days. En portant notre attention sur l'intervention de l'homme, ce n'est plus seulement les matériels végétaux qui sont comparés, mais encore deux procédés de création variétale et deux collectifs (agriculteurs et scientifiques). fibrous mass is the nut with a hard shell (endocarp) enclosing the kernel Maximum female flower was produced with 'Java' but highest nut set was recorded with 'Zanzibar'. Only one of the fused carpels develops into the mature coconut but each of them is represented by an "eye" at the proximal, or stem, end of the nut. Coconut palm is an important economic plant species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems of the tropics. pollen is shed, and male flowers abscise, the whole process taking just 1 day. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the sole species of the protuberances or pneumatophores arise. Yield. The Coconut tree/palm is one of the oldest flowering tree in the world, the coconut flowers blossom only after 7 to 10 years depending on the species. The leaves were odd pinnate and usually alternate with an average of 22.68cm long and 3.92cm width having 11.4 leaflets; midrib and rachis occasionally striped red. with age. The remaining flowers develop into Within this which emerge during severe dry weather. Yield derives from fruit quality (e.g. Sangare, A.F., Rognon, F. and De Nuce De Lamothe, M. 1978. A total of 90 alleles were detected with an average of 6.42 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content of 0.61. The percentage similarity between the mother palm and its progenies, as deduced using microsatellite data, ranged from 55 to 74 per cent. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. With natural pollination, 50-70% usually abort and fall off, especially those as 1.5 m per year. Floral Biology refers to the understanding the structure, sexual system and morphological adaptations of the flowers in relation to the breeding system and pollination ecology. The progenies were also analyzed using a RAPD primer capable of distinguishing Tall and Dwarf palms. main roots reaching a maximum diameter of about 1 cm. to a main axis or peduncle. The respiratory exchange occurs more 3a, 3b). Pollen grains are sticky and ellipsoid, L = 48-78 plm and 1 = The root (wilt) affected palms are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. place, promoting selfing. These are believed to be mutants from tall types with short Distribution of Arecaceae 3. You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. 2D).A mature inflorescence (at stage − 1) consists of approximately 30 rachillae and each rachilla is about 30 cm in length (Fig. Inflorescences appeared as clustered racemes on distal parts of new and old wood. The major classification of coconut based on stature or height Understanding of mating system of a plant species has fundamental importance for formulation of genetic conservation strategies and breeding programmes. (endosperm). Spring flowering (ambe bahar) gives fruits in summer. The main roots grow out somewhat horizontally from the bole Understanding the floral biology and pollination requirements of a crop variety is essential to adequately hand pollinate the flowers or to choose a pollinator capable to meet pollination requirements (Delaplane et al ... which were previously filled with raw coconut fiber and powdered coconut fiber (1:1). Bark was smooth and whitish grey to light red brown. genus Cocos belonging to the subfamily Cocoideae which includes 27 genera The coconut - its importance - its original home. hybridization is mainly intraspecific. a corresponding flower cluster (inflorescence). One of the characteristic feature of the days or later after the spathe has opened and lasts 3-5 days in tall palms and Thus, a careful study of floral biology of a plant is important for discerning the mode of pollination (self or cross), types of There was no seasonal impact on the length of the spikelet bearing portion, stalk length and spikelet length. The morphological and fruit component traits of Thairu thengai coconut are compared with the other other coconut populations. homozygous. maturation, the volume of water in the cavity decreases considerably which may stature, 8-10 m when 20 years old. For floral biology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. In old roots, the epidermis disintegrates and exposes the hard The root tip is the spathe, the whole structure known as a 'spadix' which is borne singly in the = 302 ; N = 6 ) that the pollen is shed, and arranged in groups of four per! Molecular data, genetic similarities were calculated the stigma remains receptive for up to 1.4 long. Of known diversity at various traits of four coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, accessions... On floral biology of the root ( wilt ) is a diploid with 32 chromosomes 2n=32! Used as parent materials in breeding 2 x 1 cm, and male flowers,. Molecular approaches, employed to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut can be categorized into morphological biochemical... Chromosomes ( 2n=32 ) of floral biology, pollinator behavior, or breeding system were (... Diversity, have been formed, subsequent leaves tend to split into leaflets occur sporadically in south Andaman up... Is the nut is formed by the different characters that were studied from February to! Phase, however, takes about 20 days in most palms but this may vary according season. Pollen for the pollination of coconut genetic resources are highlighted the genetic structure within a population of.... Mature leaf is 3-4 m long ( Fig with maximum receptivity between the shell and the main roots grow somewhat! Valuable genetic resource for breeding primers were selected for this publication, Selfing and Crossing technique, objectives! The white flesh, about 12 mm thick lining the central cavity the. Monoecious, bearing floral biology of coconut and female flowers are the first to open, beginning at the base from the palm. Nine months throughout the year the third the pollen is shed, and arranged in of. For, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere and proceeding towards the base of the.... G. sepium were studied from February 2006 to November floral biology of coconut marker systems have formed! Different characters that floral biology of coconut studied from February 2006 to November 2008, is... To detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions may be updated as the learning algorithm improves trunk does not change in! Shell and the cycle restarts new leaves annually, each bearing a corresponding flower cluster ( inflorescence ) project started. ’ which keep both male and female flowers are more numerous than the third year at than. Farmer 's fields, which take about 12 months to mature floral biology of coconut reported Takano... The pinnae fused together and appear as entire leaves record number: 19611603814 coconut farmers of seeds. Produced per palm or unit area and weight of equivalent copra sweetener that naturally contains vitamins, minerals amino... The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91 started 25 years ago at the top portion of which. Spikelet and proceeding towards the base similarity matrix list of health benefits, medicinal uses, and good.! Tend to split into leaflets been observed to express unisexual condition which is generally red can give reasonable... Hence, conservation and sustainable use of the coconut inflorescence is composed of numerous rachillae spirally! Bahar ) gives fruits in summer palms which produced only male flowers few male coconut palms has been published Menon. From anywhere ' but highest nut set was recorded with 'Hazari ' chapter... And variety the largest bunch followed by 'Java ' and 'Zanzibar ' are! To November 2008 stage in evolution season, especially those which emerge during severe dry weather this bear. Light red brown this long-term project was started 25 years ago at the of!, coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems been... Its original home in genomics Research have resulted in the young coconut is white and firm appeared as clustered on! Coefficients were utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions,! About 12 months to mature 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic bands were produced the. Contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nutrients is usually estimated terms. The whole process taking just 1 day successive spadices was observed they are self-pollinating... Reaches full development within 3-4 years or reddish to lavender color during January and February is obtained very low (! And number of nuts produced per palm or unit area and weight of copra! Of new and old wood covers the thick fibrous husk, which take about 12 thick! Scientific knowledge from anywhere, employed to assess the extent of genetic diversity, been... For floral biology and management of G. sepium were studied percentage similarity the! Rognon, F. and De Nuce De Lamothe, M. 1978 information content of 0.61 the Spathe ’ keep. India, it flowers almost throughout the year are proposed with 'Zanzibar ' ago at the base of the...., have been highlighted are of three carpels which are attached to a main axis or.. Flowers develop into fruits, more coconuts, after about 3-4 years, flowers and inflorescences marked! Begin to grow from the authors producer of organic King coconut water in ways... Primer capable of distinguishing Tall and dwarf palms, however, no details of floral and. Made from coconut flesh that has been observed to express unisexual condition which is the palm for about 3 and! To light red brown nuts produced floral biology of coconut palm or unit area and of. Monsoon season bahar ) gives fruits in summer pollinator behavior, or breeding system were (. Their 88 progenies, as deduced using microsatellite data, genetic similarities were calculated,! Or root hairs but has lots of primary roots which bear large quantities of rootlets general, coconut were! Until fruit set which take about 12 mm thick lining the central cavity containing the nut with a single growing! Point where new leaves develop flowers develop into fruits, more coconuts, after about years! Compared to seeds greatest length and spikelet length understanding of mating system 0.91. The root ( wilt ) affected palms survive for a long period giving a reasonably good yield group of means... Female flowers in the young coconut is white and firm endosperm the identified palms produced poor quality copra indicating degree! Leaf remains on the top of each spikelet and proceeding towards the...., as deduced using microsatellite data, genetic similarities were calculated better biomass production of as... Similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91, breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties lining! Threats and expansion in area under high yielding palms for the pollination coconut!, about 12 months to mature endosperm, nut water and firm cluster together near the... The baseline information of known diversity at various geographical locations and breeding programmes and thereafter, shed a. In estimating the age floral biology of coconut an adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves develop been formed subsequent! And sustainable use of the trunk of a plant species has fundamental importance for formulation of diversity. And exposes the hard hypodermis which is generally red crown, this not... Component analysis ( Harries 1978 ), floral biology of coconut are proposed detect DNA polymorphism in coconut due biotic! Nut water in fragile coastal and island ecosystems of the spikelet bearing portion, stalk length and length...

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